BONIFACE°


BONIFACE°
BONIFACE°, name of nine popes. Only the last two showed significant evidence of concern with the Jews of Europe. BONIFACE VIII 1294–1303, in his Jewish policy displayed an attitude substantially like that of his 13th-century predecessors. In 1295 he commended a citizen of Paris for having established a chapel on the spot where a miracle was said to have occurred when some Jews were supposed to have tortured a consecrated wafer (see Desecration of the host ). The same year the pope objected to the erection of a new synagogue in Trier, Germany. In 1297 he praised the queen of Sicily for having expropriated the property of Jewish usurers and urged her to use the money for the benefit of the poor. In 1300 he himself ordered the expulsion of Jewish and Christian usurers from avignon . But outweighing the above was his favorable response in 1299 to the complaints of the Jews of Rome and Avignon against inquisitors who accused them of illegal acts and then compelled them to answer the charges in some distant court. Claiming that Jews were in the category of those powerful enough to overawe witnesses, inquisitors refused to divulge the names of those who accused Jews of encouraging heresy. Jews, the pope maintained, were not necessarily powerful. One of his decisions became part of Canon Law, namely that Jews, even minors, once baptized must remain Christians. BONIFACE IX. 1389–1404 showed exceptional favor to the Jews of Rome. The city had become impoverished because of the absence of the Papal Court for the greater part of the 14th century; subsequently it was further afflicted by a succession of plagues, during which Jewish physicians had shown great skill in serving the sick of all classes. The pope continued and even amplified the favors shown these physicians by his predecessor, Urban VI, especially to Manuel and his son Angelo. He included them among his familiares (members of his household), reduced their taxes, and freed them from the obligation of wearing the jewish badge . Several other physicians were likewise favored, and the Jews of Rome in general profited from this attitude. The papal chamberlain, acting on behalf of the pope, eased the regulations on the badge, alleviated the tax burden, and even spoke of the Jews as "citizens." The pope could not show an equally friendly attitude to Jews outside the papal territory, since this was the period of the Great Schism in the church and various states wavered in their obedience to the pope in Rome. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. Stern, Urkundliche Beitraege ueber die Stellung der Paepste zu den Juden, 2 vols. (1893–95), passim; Vogelstein-Rieger, 1 (1896), 255–8, 317–9; E. Rodocanachi, Le Saint-Siège et les Juifs (1891), passim. (Solomon Grayzel)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Boniface IX —     Pope Boniface IX     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Boniface IX     Elected at Rome, 2 November, 1389, as successor of the Roman Pope, Urban VI; d. there, 1 October, 1404. Piero (Perino, Pietro) Tomacelli came of an ancient but impoverished… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Boniface II —     Pope Boniface II     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Boniface II     Elected 17 September, 530; died October, 532.     In calling him the son of Sigisbald, the Liber Pontificalis makes first mention of a pope s Germanic ancestry. Boniface… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Boniface — (französische Form von Bonifatius) ist der Name verschiedener Persönlichkeiten: Nachname: Saddique Boniface (* 1960), ghanaischer Politiker Vorname: Boniface Agambila, ghanaischer Politiker Boniface Alexandre (* 1936), haitianischer Richter und… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Boniface IV —     Pope St. Boniface IV     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope St. Boniface IV     Son of John, a physician, a Marsian from the province and town of Valeria; he succeeded Boniface III after a vacancy of over nine months; consecrated 25 August, 608;… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • boniface — ⇒BONIFACE, subst. et adj. Vx, littér. (Celui) qui est bon avec simplicité, qui est d une gentillesse un peu naïve : • 1. [La vieille Thiérachoise :] vous v s entendez à être gentil [envers votre femme] à c t heure. Jamais je ne vous ons connu… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Boniface V —     Pope Boniface V     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Boniface V     A Neapolitan who succeeded Deusdedit after a vacancy of more than a year; consecrated 23 December, 619; d. 25 October, 625. Before his consecration Italy was disturbed by the… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Boniface — On trouve ce nom un peu partout en France, mais il est particulièrement représenté dans la Marne. C est un nom de baptême d origine latine (bonifacius = qui a bonne figure, ou plutôt bonifatius = qui a un bon destin). Saint Boniface était un… …   Noms de famille

  • Boniface VI —     Pope Boniface VI     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Boniface VI     A Roman, elected in 896 by the Roman faction in a popular tumult, to succeed Formosus. He had twice incurred a sentence of deprivation of orders, as a subdeacon and as a… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Boniface — innkeeper, 1803, from Will Boniface, character in George Farquhar s comedy The Beaux Stratagem (1707). Contrary to the common opinion, this name derives not from Latin bonifacius well doer, but from bonifatius, from bonum good and fatum fate. The …   Etymology dictionary

  • Boniface — [bän′ə fəs, bän′əfās΄] 1. Saint (born Winfrid or Wynfrith) (A.D. 675? 754?); Eng. monk & missionary in Germany: his day is June 5 2. Boniface VIII (born Benedetto Caetani) 1235? 1303; pope (1294 1303) …   English World dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.